Table of Contents
- 1 Can the endoplasmic reticulum self replicate?
- 2 How does the endoplasmic reticulum make proteins?
- 3 What molecules are transported by the endoplasmic reticulum?
- 4 What is being transported along the endoplasmic reticulum?
- 5 What is endoplasmic reticulum?
- 6 Why are ribosomes retained in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Can the endoplasmic reticulum self replicate?
Ribosomes float freely in the cytoplasm or sometimes bind to another organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria are self-replicating organelles that occur in various numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. The ER has two forms: the rough ER and the smooth ER.
Does the endoplasmic reticulum replicate DNA?
Vaccinia virus DNA replication occurs in endoplasmic reticulum-enclosed cytoplasmic mini-nuclei. Mol Biol Cell.
How does the endoplasmic reticulum synthesize?
Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes inside a cell through which proteins and other molecules move. Proteins are assembled at organelles called ribosomes. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes and helps synthesize and concentrate various substances needed by the cell. …
How does the endoplasmic reticulum make proteins?
Ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum are called ‘membrane bound’ and are responsible for the assembly of many proteins. This process is called translation. Certain cells of the pancreas and digestive tract produce a high volume of protein as enzymes.
How do molecules replicate?
Replication occurs in three major steps: the opening of the double helix and separation of the DNA strands, the priming of the template strand, and the assembly of the new DNA segment. Finally, a special enzyme called DNA polymerase organizes the assembly of the new DNA strands.
Which of the following can replicate by itself?
Biological cells, given suitable environments, reproduce by cell division. During cell division, DNA is replicated and can be transmitted to offspring during reproduction. Biological viruses can replicate, but only by commandeering the reproductive machinery of cells through a process of infection.
What molecules are transported by the endoplasmic reticulum?
The ER, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes are all members of a network of membranes, but they are not continuous with one another. Therefore, the membrane lipids and proteins that are synthesized in the ER must be transported through the network to their final destination in membrane-bound vesicles.
How does the endoplasmic reticulum work?
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves important functions particularly in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins. SER is involved in the synthesis of lipids, including cholesterol and phospholipids, which are used in the production of new cellular membrane.
What would be synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
Proteins synthesized by the rough ER include the prominent milk protein casein, and whey proteins. These proteins are packaged into secretory vesicles or large micelles and travel through the Golgi network before fusing with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents into milk ducts.
What is being transported along the endoplasmic reticulum?
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves important functions particularly in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a specialized type of SER that regulates calcium ion concentration in the cytoplasm of striated muscle cells.
How do the ER and cell membrane work together?
Membranes and their constituent proteins are assembled in the ER. This organelle contains the enzymes involved in lipid synthesis, and as lipids are manufactured in the ER, they are inserted into the organelle’s own membranes. This happens in part because the lipids are too hydrophobic to dissolve into the cytoplasm.
What are the 4 steps of replication?
- Step 1: Replication Fork Formation. Before DNA can be replicated, the double stranded molecule must be “unzipped” into two single strands.
- Step 2: Primer Binding. The leading strand is the simplest to replicate.
- Step 3: Elongation.
- Step 4: Termination.
What is endoplasmic reticulum?
Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes inside a cell through which proteins and other molecules move. Proteins are assembled at organelles called ribosomes. When proteins are destined to be part of the cell membrane or exported from the cell, the ribosomes assembling them attach to the endoplasmic reticulum, giving it a rough appearance.
What causes the endoplasmic reticulum to become engorged?
Sometimes, when those proteins are made improperly, the proteins stay within the endoplasmic reticulum. They’re retained and the endoplasmic reticulum becomes engorged because it seems to be constipated, in a way, and the proteins don’t get out where they’re suppose to go.
How do polypeptides enter the endoplasmic reticulum?
Translation continues on the ER and the emerging polypeptide can co-translationally enter the ER through the translocon , which is a channel that contains several Sec proteins and spans the lipid bilayer .
Why are ribosomes retained in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
They’re retained and the endoplasmic reticulum becomes engorged because it seems to be constipated, in a way, and the proteins don’t get out where they’re suppose to go. Then there’s the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which doesn’t have those ribosomes on it.